PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION B1.The visual receptors in the eyes called ___________ function best in dim lighting and are primarilyblack-and-white brightness receptors.a. rodsb. conesc. fovead. ganglion cells2.A person with a deficiency in only one of the color systems, such as redgreen, would be considered a___________, while someone who is color-blind in two color systems is a labeled a _____________.a. monochromat; dichromatb. dichromat; monochromatc. monochromat; trichromatd. dichromat; trichromat3.When a nerve impulse is sent to the brain from the ear, that impulse originates from:a. the eardrum.b. the hair cells on the organ of Corti.c. the oval window.d. the basilar membrane.4.Compared to sensory receptors in the eyes and ears, the senses of gustation and olfaction aresomewhat unique in that their receptors are sensitive to ____________ rather than to ___________.a. some form of energy; chemical moleculesb. sounds; some form of energyc. chemical molecules; some form of energyd. light; sounds5.Tactile information regarding pressure, pain, and warmth are sent to and processed in the:a. motor cortex.b. frontal lobe.c. somatosensory cortex.d. occipital lobe.6.The phantom limb phenomenon is apparently caused by:a. irritated neurons that trick the brain into interpreting nerve impulses as real sensations.b. depressive symptoms experienced by the amputee.c. expectancy and placebo effects about what is supposed to happen when a limb is lost.d. damage to the motor cortex.7.Which of the following is an advantage of selective attention?a. Selective attention allows us not to be overwhelmed by the millions of sensory messages that arebeing processed by our nervous system.b. Selective attention determines the sensitivity of various sensory receptor neurons.c. Selective attention allows us to completely attend to multiple stimuli simultaneously.pg. 1PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION Bd. Selective attention prevents us from attending to potentially important stimuli once we havefiltered them out of attention.8.9.Visual illusions are primarily of interest to researchers studying perception because they:a. provide valuable information on sensory adaptation.b. provide information about how key photopigments in the retina function.c. provide important information about how perceptual processes work under normal conditions.d. represent instances in which the dual-process theory of vision fails.When shown a picture of a hunting scene, African people perceived a hunter as attempting to kill ababy elephant, while Westerners tended to perceive that the hunter was after another animal and thoughtthat the baby elephant was actually an adult elephant off in the distance. These results were presented as anexample of how the use of __________ depth cues _________ consistent across cultures.a. binocular; are notb. binocular; arec. monocular; are notd. monocular; are10.Which of the following examples best illustrates the process of perception?a. recognizing the voice of your best friendb. detecting a faint sound during a hearing testc. a sensory neuron in the eye responds to a light hitting itd. a drop of sugar hitting the taste buds on your tongue11.In the human eye, light is focused on the back of the retina by the:a. iris.b. pupil.c. lens.d. cornea.12.Someone who suffers from hyperopia:a. has good distance vision but has difficulty seeing things up close.b. can see things well up close but has poor distance vision.c. has color blindness that affects only one of the color systems.d. has only black-and-white vision.13.The process in which the qualities of a sensory stimulus are converted into nerve impulses is specifically14.called:a. perception.b. transduction.c. conversion.d. sensory adaptation.According to the opponent-process theory of color, if you stare steadily at a green stimulus, when youclose your eyes the afterimage will be:a. blue.b. white.pg. 2PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION Bc. red.d. green.15.Two important physical characteristics of sound waves are:a. amplitude and decibels.b. frequency and pitch.c. amplitude and frequency.d. frequency and hertz.16.Research concerning young infants understanding of simple arithmetic:a. has yet to be conducted.b. has shown that the earliest age at which an understanding of arithmetic appears is 1.5 years old.c. suggests that young infants understand simple addition and subtraction.d. suggests that young infants understand multiplication and division.17.According to Jean Piaget, the process in which new information is incorporated into preexistingschemas is known as:a. assimilation.b. accommodation.c. adaptation.d. adjustment.18.Which of the following examples best demonstrates the process of accommodation?a. An infant who is used to sucking on a pacifier learns that she can also suck on toy blocks.b. A toddler begins to correctly refer to a horse as a horsy and not a big doggie.c. A toddler at dinner attempts to eat the place mat because she thinks it is something to eat.d. A toddler refers to a giraffe as a tall kitty.19.An infant who interprets her world primarily through her physical interactions with objects is mostlikely in Jean Piagets ____________ stage.a. preconventionalb. concrete operationalc. preoperationald. sensorimotor20.Jean Piaget observed that infants typically develop the concept of _____________ during the____________ stage of cognitive development.a. object permanence; preoperationalb. object permanence; sensorimotorc. conservation; preoperationald. conservation; sensorimotorWhich of the following placements of a hypothetical third eye would be most characteristic of a child inthe concrete operational stage?a. between her other two eyesb. on her handc. on the back of her head21.pg. 3PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION Bd. on top of her head22.The concept theory of mind is most closely related to which of the following constructs?a. egocentrismb. zone of proximal developmentc. object permanenced. conservation23.The tendency for some species of birds and mammals to follow and attach to the first thing that movesafter they are born is called:a. reflex attachment.b. fixating.c. imprinting.d. encoding.24.Harry Harlow presented infant monkeys with two surrogate mothers. One was a bare wire cylinderwith a feeding bottle whereas the other was a wire cylinder covered with soft terrycloth that had no feedingbottle. The results of his experiments revealed that:a. infant monkeys became attached to the bare wire mother.b. infant monkeys became attached to the terrycloth mother.c. infant monkeys did not become attached to either mother and showed strong symptoms of anxiety.d. some monkeys became attached to the bare wire mother whereas others became attached to theterrycloth mother.25.An infant who smiles at and vocalizes to almost any adult that she encounters is most likely in JohnBowlbys _______________ attachment behavior phase.a. undifferentiatedb. randomc. indiscriminated. uniform26.Which of the following statements concerning attachment is TRUE?a. Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety occur at approximately the same time, when the child isabout 6 or 7 months old.b. Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety occur at approximately the same time, when the child isbetween 12 and 16 months old.c. Stranger anxiety develops around the age of 6 or 7 months, whereas separation anxiety developssomewhere between the ages of 12 and 16 months.d. Separation anxiety develops around the age of 6 or 7 months, whereas stranger anxiety developssomewhere between the ages of 12 and 16 months.27.Psychologist Mary Ainsworth used ____________ to examine different types of infant attachment.a. wire cylinder monkeysb. the strange situationpg. 4PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION Bc. moral dilemmasd. conservation problems28.Trang is participating in an attachment experiment involving the strange situation. When his mother ispresent with the stranger, he explores the room and is friendly with the stranger. However, when the motherleaves, he becomes upset and starts to cry. When she returns, he happily greets her and then returns to hisprevious explorations. Trang would most likely be classified as a(n) _______________ child.a. resistant-avoidantb. anxious-resistantc. anxious-avoidantd. securely attached29.Harry Harlow found that when isolated monkeys were returned to the colony, they were likely to showany of the following characteristics EXCEPT:a. indifference.b. depression.c. terror.d. aggression.30.A child is told a story about Bobby, who puts his teddy bear under his bed and then goes outside toplay. While he is gone, Bobbys mother comes in to clean his room, finds his teddy bear, and puts it in thecloset. When asked where Bobby will look for his teddy bear when he returns, most 2- and 3-year-olds will say____________ and most 4-year-olds will say ___________.a. under the bed; under the bed as wellb. in the closet; in the closet as wellc. under the bed; in the closetd. in the closet; under the bed31.A child is bitten by a German Shepherd when he is young. When he grows up, the child develops a fearof not just German Shepherds but of all dogs, and he refuses to go near them. The fact that this person nowavoids all dogs is most relevant to which of the following?a. punishment.b. avoidance learning.c. stimulus generalization.d. negative reinforcement.______________ has strong adaptive significance, because if we responded continuously to everystimuli in the environment we would quickly become fatigued and overwhelmed.a. Habituationb. One-trial learningc. Extinctiond. Negative reinforcement32.33.Pavlov determined that a tone triggered salivation more quickly when the size of the _________ wasgreater or more intense.a. UCRb. UCSpg. 5PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION Bc. CRd. CS34.When Pavlov was conditioning his dogs to salivate in response to a tone, he first paired the tone withthe presentation of food until the tone alone could induce salivation. In his experiments, which of thefollowing was the unconditioned stimulus?a. salivation in response to the foodb. the foodc. salivation in response to the toned. the tone35.One major way that the CS and UCS are similar is that:a. after classical conditioning, they both elicit the same behavioral response.b. before classical conditioning, they both elicit the same behavioral response.c. they both make the behaviors that they follow more likely to occur.d. they both make the behaviors that they follow less likely to occur.36.Stimulus generalization refers to the process where stimuli that are similar to the initial______________ also elicit a conditioned response.a. CSb. UCSc. CRd. UCR37.John Watson and Rosalie Rayner (1920) conditioned baby Albert to fear a white rat by pairing it with aloud noise that Albert already feared. After the conditioning had taken place, the researchers also found thatAlbert was afraid of furry white and gray objects, such as a rabbit and a Santa Claus mask. The fact that Albertwas afraid of these additional items demonstrated that:a. stimulus generalization had occurred.b. discrimination had occurred.c. extinction had occurred.d. higher-order conditioning had occurred.38.39.In aversion therapy, a stimulus that triggers an unwanted behavior is paired with:a. a pleasant stimulus.b. a discriminative stimulus.c. a noxious stimulus.d. extinction trials.Edward Thorndike would most likely have given which of the following explanations for why cats couldeventually escape his puzzle box?a. The cats eventually gained insight into how to solve the problem.b. The cats eventually were able to discriminate the CS sufficiently.c. The cats used trial and error and slowly eliminated ineffective responses.pg. 6PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION Bd. The cats response costs for ineffective action eventually became too high.40.In negative reinforcement, when an aversive stimulus is ___________, it makes the behavior that itfollows ________ likely to occur.a. removed; lessb. removed; morec. presented; lessd. presented; more41.While walking through the mall, a young boy sees a new pair of shoes and immediately tells hisgrandmother that he would like to have them. The grandma initially refuses, prompting the boy to get upsetand he starts to cry. The grandma hates to see her grandson get upset, so she changes her mind and buys himthe shoes. In this example, we could say that the grandmas initial refusal was _____________ and the boysmini-tantrum was ____________.a. the conditioned stimulus; the conditioned responseb. the consequence; the discriminative stimulusc. classically extinguished; extinguished via operant conditioningd. aversively punished; positively reinforced42.A reinforcement system that utilizes such things as points or chips that can be redeemed later fortangible rewards to reinforce desired behavior is called:a. a token economy.b. shaping.c. classical conditioning.d. latent learning.43.Police dogs that are used to locate illegal drugs and pigeons that can peck a signal button when theyspot an orange life jacket in the water both demonstrate how the principles of _______________ can be usedto train animals to assist humans.a. classical conditioningb. operant conditioningc. observational learningd. higher-order conditioningThe text discussed an experiment in which rats were exposed to X-rays that were paired with sweetwater, a light, and a buzzer. The X-rays made the rats ill and the researchers wanted to know which stimuliwould become associated with the illness. The results revealed that the rats avoided ___________. Thefindings from this experiment were used to demonstrate the concept of ___________.a. only the light; latent learningb. only the sweet water; preparednessc. only the buzzer; negative reinforcementd. all three stimuli; discrimination44.45.The concept of instinctive drift refers to:a. an unlearned response triggered by a simple stimulus.b. the fact that an organism learns behaviors by observing mature organisms.c. the ways in which instinctual behaviors can be modified to create unique conditioned responses.pg. 7PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION Bd. the tendency for a conditioned response to regress toward instinctual behavior.18.104.22.168.50.According to learning theorists, insight involves the:a. positive reinforcement of a conditioned response on a variable schedule of reinforcement.b. sudden perception of a useful relationship that helps to solve a problem.c. identification of antecedent stimuli that indicate when a behavior will have certain consequences.d. association of a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.A new skier who first watches and then copies his experienced friends is most likely making use ofwhich learning strategy?a. insightb. observational learningc. positive reinforcementd. secondary reinforcement____________ specifically refers to the memory process in which information is retained over time.a. Storageb. Retrievalc. Encodingd. PrimingThe capacity of _____________ memory is generally agreed to be about five to nine meaningful piecesof information.a. short-termb. episodicc. procedurald. sensoryThe capacity of ____________ memory appears to be unlimited.a. workingb. long-termc. sensoryd. iconic51.Making a grocery list and taking notes for a class are both examples of _____________, which refers toencoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention.a. effortful processingb. automatic processingc. maintenance rehearsald. state-dependent memory52.If I present you with the word BOOK and ask you if this word contains all lowercase letters, answeringthis question involves the use of ___________ encoding.a. structuralb. phonologicalc. episodicpg. 8PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION Bd. semantic53.A person uses the term HOMES to remember the names of the Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario,Michigan, Erie, Superior). This memory-enhancing technique is best viewed as an example of:a. maintenance rehearsal.b. the use of hierarchies.c. chunking.d. an acronym.54.In the case of the amnesia patient H.M. presented in the text, it was found that:a. his declarative memory and procedural memory were severely impaired.b. his procedural memory functioned normally but his declarative memory was severely impaired.c. his episodic memory functioned normally but his semantic memory and procedural memory wereseverely impaired.d. his semantic memory functioned normally but his episodic memory and procedural memory wereseverely impaired.55.Fill-in-the-blank questions, true or false questions, and essay questions allow professors to assess your:a. procedural memoryb. episodic memoryc. implicit memoryd. semantic memory.56.Research has found that self-generating many retrieval cues is a technique that facilitates memory. It isassumed that this type of processing facilitates encoding by:a. making the information more declarative.b. limiting the impact of retroactive interference.c. providing deeper and more elaborative processing.d. making use of state-dependent learning effects.Imagine that you have studied for an exam in a noisy environment and your state of physiologicalarousal has been low while you were studying. If on the day of the exam you were given the test in a quietenvironment and your physiological arousal was high (due to test anxiety), the concept of state-dependentmemory would predict that your recall would be __________ and the concept of context-dependent memorywould predict that your recall would ___________.a. worse; also be worseb. better; be worsec. worse; be betterd. better; also be better57.58.Retroactive interference is said to occur when ____________ material in memory interferes with therecall of ____________ material.a. older; newly acquiredb. older; other olderc. newly acquired; other newly acquiredd. newly acquired; olderpg. 9PSYCH 100 EXAM #2 VERSION B59.___________ amnesia is said to occur when memory loss occurs for events that happened prior to theonset of the amnesia.a. Anterogradeb. Retrogradec. Proactived. Prospective60.When you enter a nice restaurant, you typically expect that a host or hostess will seat you, that you willreceive a menu before you order, and that you will receive a bill at the conclusion of the meal. These thoughtstogether are best considered to be an example of:a. a retrieval cue.b. priming.c. overlearning.d. a schema.pg. 10
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