paragraph 3- question for the wwek

Please write a Paragraph answering to this discussion below with your opinion. Please include citations and references in alphabetical order in case of another source.

There are many forms of abuse to include physical, emotional, sexual, and neglect. Infants can be subjected to any of these forms of abuse. Neglect, physical, and even sexual abuse are easier to see on an infant. Things to observe for would be malnutrition, dehydration, poor weight gain, and failure to thrive in an infant. Forms of physical abuse would be bruising at different stages, hand print or oval finger marks on the trunk or arms (Stanford Medicine, 2018). Other signs to look for in case of sexual abuse would be bruising to the genitalia or inner upper thighs, even oral injuries, torn or bruised frenulum, damage to oral mucosa, tongue, palate, lips. Sadly, even looking for STDs from forced oral sex. Most commonly would be head trauma, signs of Shaken Baby Syndrome, head injury, or even subdural hematomas. According to Stanford Medicine, bruising is the most common sign of physical abuse in children, up to 52% of child abuse cases.

Cultural variations that can be misconstrued as child abuse can be practices such as coining or caogio, which is dermabrasion therapy (intense rubbing of the skin) practiced by Vietnamese, Cambodians, and Laotians. It is a healing practice used to treat headaches, coughs, fevers, upper respiratory infections, and sore throats. It can be manifested as long streaks of bruising up along the back of the child.

Another practice used in China to rid the body of illness is called spooning or guasha – the spoon is rubbed on the wet skin also leaving bruising.

Cupping is practiced in the Middle East, Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, it can be either done as wet or dry cupping. Leaving perfectly round circular bruises and marks on the child’s back.

There is also moxibustion practiced in Asia where they burn rolled pieces of moxa herb over the skin surface, leaving what could be misconstrued as cigarette burns (Killion, 2017). These are a few cultural health practices that may occur and requires nurses to be aware for proper assessment when these are noted on children.

Nurses have a responsibility to report all suspected child abuse cases here in the state of Texas. It is our policy at our hospital to call and report any suspected cases to Child Protective Services. Social services and case management are notified and the process is started at that time. Any suspected sexual abuse case, the police department is notified and an assessment by the SANE (Sexual Abuse Nurse Examiner) nurse is conducted.


Killion, C. M. (2017). Cultural healing practices that mimic child abuse. SciMed Central. Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis 4(2). 1042.

Stanford Medicine (2018). Child abuse. Retrieved June 18, 2018 from

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