Explain the pros and cons of the politics- administration dichotomy as espoused by Woodrow Wilson The disadvantage to this is government can implement laws without votes. An example, the government bailing out big businesses when they dwindle their funds and are going bankrupt. It is US policy to bailout the biggest American companies responsible for transportation-airliners, petrol companies, etc-from failure through subsidies and low-interest loans. But some emergency type bailouts are controversial. I see it as away to pass the buck sort of speak to the taxpayers. The law that gets passed as to how they get bailed out does not come from the people. It promotes centralized bureaucracy because it allows the government powers to choose the terms of the bailout. Mismanagement caused by the companies should not be a reason for a bailout. The Chrysler Corporation has been bailed out by the government twice. Certain ailments should be put in place to protect Americans from this when companies are at risk and people should have a say on who and why on the bailouts. HTML Editor2. Why is the issue of illegal immigration a good example of the intergovernmental relations mess in the US The issue of illegal imigration is a good example because this involves jobs and money. Right wing scared cats think: "very little. And a major cause of unemployment is that the jobs are not there because employers know that they can pay them minimum wage and since they are in the us illegal they cant even ask for a raise for fear of loosing there jobs.people Wake up remove illegal people from usa stop giving other countries our tax dollars and stop spending money on things that are not necessary.There are over 300 million people in the US and over 36 million people here Illegal.Thats a major problem for Unemployment. Also remove any congressman or woman that does not address these issues to fix them." Widespread xenophobia was one of the causes of the jewish persecution and holocaust but xenophobes like the author above probably think that history lesson does not apply to him. The common xenophobe has very little knowledge of the people he fears so much, but he makes up for that by making assumptions that are always biased with his fears. He never intended to apply for the jobs he claims foreigners are 'stealing' from him, neither does he see that the real bad guy is the employer in the above story (follow the money). One could try to educate such xenophobes, but it is much more effective to force them to do the work that is done by his beloved 'illegals' right now. HTML Editor3. Discuss the various uses of public budget The authors Robert W. Smith and Thomas D. Lynch describe public budgeting through four perspectives. The politician sees the budget process as "a political event conducted in the political arena for political advantage". The economist views budgeting as a matter of allocating resources in terms of opportunity cost where allocating resources to one consumer takes resources away from another consumer. The role of the economist, therefore, is to provide decision makers with the best possible information. The accountant perspective focuses on the accountability value in budgeting which analyzes the amount budgeted to the actual expenditures thereby describing the "wisdom of the original policy". Smith and Lynch's public manager's perspective on a budget is a policy tool to describe the implementation of public policy. Further, they develop an operational definition: Types of Public BudgetsOperating budgets are those documents that describe the expenditures and revenues during a given period for the functioning of an organization. Capital budgeting is the process of planning for future purchases above a certain cost threshold or extended life span. This budget is typically accompanied by a Capital Improvement Plan that describes a timeline for acquisition and payment of debt. HTML Editor4. Explain how the public budget could be political The answer to this is very simple, the politicians all have their own agendas, when it comes to distributing the money. This where it gets political, HTML Editor5. How does administrative responsibility contribute to the attainment of public interest You've seen what happens to the public health, safety, and welfare when administrative irresponsibility is ascendant. As long as the politicians tell us what we want to hear, that we are great and exceptional and every thing we are doing is contributing to our greatness and exceptionalism by creating more wealth with less taxes and less government regulation for everybody, when the reality is otherwise, then we are doomed to a slide from mediocrity to inferiority and then irrelevance. Not my idea of the American dream. More like the American nightmare. The Great Recession was the tip of the iceberg. Next commercial real estate will implode, the value of real estate will continue to decline and more and more people will be delinquent in paying even the lower real estate taxes. Without an adequate flow of real estate taxes, the municipalities will default on their bonds, the private funds and pension funds invested in them will go bankrupt, and all of this will be blamed on the state, county, and municipal employees whose unions negotiated them a fair deal with fair wages and fair benefits. This is not the future I worked for or invested in, but its the hand I'm being dealt, unless we can elect leaders that will get the financiers and health care system under control, which is where the real problem lies, and stop picking on the working class, where the problem isn't. HTML Editor6. Discuss the importance of administrative communication to public decision making and performance Public administration houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal… is to advance management and policies so that government can function."  Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies."  Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct"  Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including police officers, municipal budget analysts, HR benefits administrators, city managers, Census analysts, and cabinet secretaries HTML Editor7. Discuss the benefits and weakness of bureaucratic discretion to public sector management HTML Editor8. Explain the politics of administrative reforms HTML Editor9. Explain how ethical choices influence the decision making and performance of public administrators in recent times HTML Editor10. From what you have learnt so far, briefly explain the key responsibilities of public administrators and the best way of meeting the responsibilities. HTML Editor
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