exam questions

QUESTION 1

  1. _______________ is information acquired from other members of one’s species through social learning, affecting an individual’s behavior.
    collectivism
    culture
    social loafing
    individualism

4 points

QUESTION 2

  1. What does the WEIRD acronym stand for
    people from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Revolting, and Democratic societies
    people from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Demanding societies
    people from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic societies
    people from Western, Educated, Idealized, Rich, and Democratic societies

4 points

QUESTION 3

  1. __________ emphasizes equality and benevolence, in contrast, __________ emphasizes freedom but not equality.
    horizontal culture, vertical culture
    traditional culture, non-traditional culture
    non-traditional culture, traditional culture
    vertical culture, horizontal culture

4 points

QUESTION 4

  1. Which of the following is NOT viewed as a reason for why many cultures are becoming more individualistic compared with past generations?
    people live more suburban lifestyles today.
    people have fewer siblings today.
    people rely on electronic entertainment more today.
    today’s generation has not lived through a big threat like World War II where people felt that they shared a common fate with their neighbors.

4 points

QUESTION 5

  1. Adolescent rebellion
    is more pronounced in societies with more role distinctions and opportunities.
    is universal, although adolescent violence is not.
    is especially pronounced in collectivistic societies.
    is something that is observed in the vast majority of the world’s cultures.

4 points

QUESTION 6

  1. Which statement about personality structure across cultures is most accurate?
    The only trait that emerges reliably across all cultures is neuroticism.
    The “Big 5” factors of personality are found in most cultures.
    The “Big 5” only emerges reliably in cultures characterized by independent views of self.
    Neuroticism is the only trait of the “Big 5” that does not emerge reliably across cultures.

4 points

QUESTION 7

  1. What is considered moral by those at Kohlberg’s Preconventional Level of moral development is
    that which is most likely to lead to rewards and is least likely to lead to punishment.
    that which is associated with the strongest emotions.
    that which follows the most logically.
    that which is consistent with the rules.

4 points

QUESTION 8

  1. People are better at identifying emotional expressions if
    the target is expressing a negative emotion.
    they are experiencing the same emotion while making the judgment.
    they are able to ignore the contextual cues.
    they are of the same culture as the person expressing the emotion.

4 points

QUESTION 9

  1. What is considered immoral by the standards of the ethic of community?
    that which betrays his or her group.
    that which interferes with the rights of another person.
    that which is perceived to be unnatural.
    that which causes harm to another person.

4 points

QUESTION 10

  1. Which of the following does NOT appear to be a universal basis of physical attraction?
    blemish-free skin.
    average-sized bodies.
    symmetrical faces.
    faces without abnormally sized features.

4 points

QUESTION 11

  1. Higher suicide rates among Canadian First Nation youths
    appear to be largely the result of copy-cat suicides.
    are due to different cultural meanings of suicide.
    have been steadily dropping over time.
    are associated with their communities having few connections to their traditional past.

4 points

QUESTION 12

  1. The tendency to exert less effort on a task when working with other people is called
    social loafing
    blending
    cultural distance
    frame-switching

4 points

QUESTION 13

  1. The ability to move between multiple self-concepts depending on context is referred to as
    frame-switching
    cultural distance
    blending
    social loafing

4 points

QUESTION 14

  1. Comparisons of eye gaze between East Asians and Westerners reveal that
    Westerners spend longer time gazing at focal objects than do East Asians.
    their gazes tend to initially start out different, but become more similar over time attending to an object.
    although people describe scenes differently, they are actually looking at objects quite similarly.
    Westerners shift their attention around more than East Asians.

4 points

QUESTION 15

  1. According to the definition offered in the textbook, which of the following would NOT be a good example of “culture.”
    IPods.
    A child is given a new puzzle that she has never seen before, and she discovers a novel solution by herself.
    A child learning how to tie her shoes from her mother.
    A wild chimpanzee mother teaches young chimpanzees to use tools.

4 points

QUESTION 16

  1. When it comes to analytic reasoning tasks
    East Asians are usually unable to solve them.
    East Asians choose rule-based responses if there is a conflict between rule- and similarity-based judgments.
    East Asians choose similarity-based responses if there is a conflict between rule- and similarity-based judgments.
    on average, East Asians have much difficulty with them relative to Westerners.

4 points

QUESTION 17

  1. Self-esteem is related to acculturation in that
    people’s self-esteem comes to approximate the self-esteem norms in the host culture as they acculturate.
    the more acculturated an individual is, the higher is their self-esteem.
    greater self-esteem hinders one’s ability to acculturate to the host culture.
    separation attitudes are associated with the highest self-esteem.

4 points

QUESTION 18

  1. A key difference between “cultural” psychologists and “general” psychologists is that
    cultural psychologists study people from different cultures while general psychologists study people from one culture.
    cultural psychologists believe that the mind is interdependent with context and content whereas general psychologists believe that the mind is independent from context and content.
    general psychologists believe that people are born with essentially the same brains everywhere, whereas cultural psychologists believe that people are born with different kinds of brains in different cultures.
    general psychologists study people who have had their culture statistically controlled for.

4 points

QUESTION 19

  1. __________ is based on new principles, ideas, and practices, while __________ is rooted in rules, symbols, and principles established in the past
    non-traditional culture, traditional culture
    vertical culture, horizontal culture
    horizontal culture, vertical culture
    traditional culture, non-traditional culture

4 points

QUESTION 20

  1. Which of the following behaviors is evidence for a secure attachment style?
    the child avoids her mother when she is around.
    the child gets upset when the mother leaves, and is happy to see her upon her return.
    the child oscillates between wanting to be near or wanting to be apart from her mother.
    the child is not distressed when her mother is absent.

4 points

QUESTION 21

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the Big 5 personality traits?
    Openness to experience
    Extraversion
    Autonomy
    Neuroticism

4 points

QUESTION 22

  1. Research on facial expressions across cultures finds that the expressions made among Americans for the “basic” emotions
    are recognized much above chance in all cultures studied.
    are recognized by those from cultures with much contact with Americans, but are not recognized by those from cultures with little contact with Americans.
    are largely unrecognizable by those from other cultures.
    are recognized in other cultures for happiness and sadness, but not for anger and disgust.

4 points

QUESTION 23

  1. Research on religion, relational styles, and work found
    Protestants work harder than non-Protestants, but only when they are reminded of their religion.
    Protestants work as hard as non-Protestants, however, they do so without attending to their relationships, regardless of condition.
    Protestants attend less to relationships than non-Protestants when engaged in a work task.
    Protestants work harder, regardless of condition, than non-Protestants.

4 points

QUESTION 24

  1. During a professional ice hockey game, fans from around the world saw Tony Bertram, a professional hockey player, punch an unsuspecting player in the face and throw him onto the ice. Based on what you know about analytic and holistic thinking styles, which of the following do you think is most likely to happen?
    East Asians and Westerners will equally blame Tony’s nasty personality.
    East Asians will blame Tony’s nasty personality, and Westerners will blame Tony’s family problems.
    East Asians and Westerners will equally blame Tony’s family problems.
    East Asians will blame Tony’s family problems, and Westerners will blame Tony’s nasty personality.

4 points

QUESTION 25

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic elements of sociality distinguished by A. P. Fiske?
    Communal sharing
    Social loafing
    Authority ranking
    Market pricing

4 points

QUESTION 26

  1. Biculturalism is more common
    in societies largely formed by immigration
    in ethnically diverse neighborhoods
    among immigrants with longer residence in society of settlement
    all of the above

4 points

QUESTION 27

  1. When people from non-Western cultures complete the Twenty Statements Test, in contrast to people from Western cultures, they tend to
    list more roles and relationships.
    list more psychological attributes.
    list more positive attributes.
    list more situation-invariant attributes.

4 points

QUESTION 28

  1. Romantic love is
    a product of individualism, and a concern with meeting an individual’s unique needs.
    something that grows with age until the birth of children.
    a recent phenomenon in some human cultures.
    something that appears to exist in all cultures.

4 points

QUESTION 29

  1. Which statement about social anxiety and culture is NOT true?
    East Asians report less symptoms than Westerners
    Social anxiety is a disorder that is found universally across cultures
    Interdependence strongly correlates with self-reports of social anxiety
    East Asians report more symptoms than Westerners

4 points

QUESTION 30

  1. A key difference between evoked culture and transmitted culture is that
    evoked culture spreads much quicker than does transmitted culture.
    evoked culture is more likely found in nonliterate societies, whereas transmitted culture is more common in literate societies.
    evoked culture is limited to a specific geographical setting, whereas transmitted culture can move across different ecologies.
    the majority of cultural differences are evoked than are transmitted.

4 points

QUESTION 31

  1. Ken has an interdependent self-concept, and wants to get married. Compared to someone with an independent self-concept, he is more likely to prefer:
    that an internet service chooses his partner.
    that his classmates choose for him.
    that his family members choose for him.
    to choose his marriage partner himself.

4 points

QUESTION 32

  1. Which of the following is not one of the “basic emotions.”
    fear
    surprise
    disgust
    pride

4 points

QUESTION 33

  1. North American culture perceive unsolicited advice __________, while Russian culture view solicited and unsolicited advice ________________.
    negatively, as a desire to support a relationship
    as a desire to support a relationship, negatively
    as a desire to support a relationship, uncaringly
    negatively, uncaringly

4 points

QUESTION 34

  1. The individual maintains his or her own cultural identity and rejects involvement with the host culture is descriptive of which acculturation strategy?
    Separation
    Marginalization
    Integration
    Assimilation

4 points

QUESTION 35

  1. Why isn’t there much cumulative culture among chimpanzees?
    Chimpanzees aren’t very good at imitative learning.
    Chimpanzees don’t have skilled problem-solving skills.
    Chimpanzees are not a social species.
    Chimpanzees aren’t able to write their ideas down for future generations to read.

4 points

QUESTION 36

  1. You are introduced to a person who is said to have an independent view of self. Based on Markus and Kitayama’s model, which of the following would you least expect the person to say?
    “I am a responsible person.”
    “I’m a member of a ballet dance group.”
    “I am my own person and am not defined by others.”
    “I love playing hockey.”

4 points

QUESTION 37

  1. Complex behavior based on concern for oneself and one’s immediate family or primary group as opposed to concern for other groups to which one belongs is defined as:
    culture concern
    individualism
    cultural relativism
    ethnocentrism

4 points

QUESTION 38

  1. Which of the following would be an example of secondary control?
    You convince yourself that taking the bus to work isn’t so bad after all.
    You work hard at your studies in the beginning of the term so that you don’t have such a busy time at the end of the term.
    You start showing up at work before your boss does in an effort to get a raise.
    You return the sweater that you just bought to the store because you decide it doesn’t look very good on you.

4 points

QUESTION 39

  1. Analytic thinking styles are
    especially common in East Asian cultures.
    common in many cultures outside of the West.
    more common among the elderly.
    largely utilized in Western cultures.

4 points

QUESTION 40

  1. People’s self-concept that reflect a hybrid of their two cultural worlds is called
    cultural distance
    social loafing
    frame-switching
    blending

4 points

QUESTION 41

  1. A group of East Asians and Americans have won a contest, and each person is allowed to pick a car from a selection of cars. All cars are of the same make, model, and year. The only thing that differs between them is that they can be one of two colors. Furthermore, there is an extremely unequal proportion between the two colors, making the minority-color very unique. Given this scenario, which of the following statements is TRUE?
    Americans will choose cars with the brightest colors.
    East Asians will choose their cars randomly.
    East Asians will choose unique-colored cars.
    Americans will choose minority-colored cars.

4 points

QUESTION 42

  1. The kinds of ideas that are best remembered over time are those that
    are mostly intuitive, with the occasional counter-intuitive idea included.
    are counter-intuitive.
    are intuitive.
    are mostly counter-intuitive, with the occasional intuitive idea included.

4 points

QUESTION 43

  1. East Asians report experiencing emotions ___________ intensely and for shorter periods of time than do Westerners.
    equal
    less
    more
    no difference

4 points

QUESTION 44

  1. Which of the following statement s about self-esteem is most accurate?
    there is very little variation in self-esteem across cultures.
    interdependence is positively related to self-esteem.
    self-esteem is higher among children than adults in Eastern cultures, however, self-esteem is higher among adults than children in Western cultures.
    independence is positively related to self-esteem.

4 points

QUESTION 45

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