businesses in the 20th century , Business Discussion help

Reply to the two LA with at least 130 words

Learning Activity #1

Many of the businesses in the 20th century was manufacturing based companies, whereas in the 21st century there?s is a combination of manufacturing companies and service based companies as well. In the 20th century businesses were done in small scale and generally limited to certain geography, whereas in the 21st century businesses are more globalized. In the 20th century businesses focused more on making profit by reducing costs, whereas in the in 21st century businesses focus on optimizing the total cost of the business. In the 20th century transcation type of leadership is very common, whereas in the 21st century transformation type of leadership is very common. In the 20th century functional organization structure was very common, whereas in the 21st century matrix organization is more common.

Learning Activity #2

In the 21st century, most successful leaders will place their attention on sustaining superior performance. This can be done through aligning individuals around mission, vision, and values. Also, a leader will perform tasks such as goal development, and empowerment of employees (Jean-Marie, Normore & Brooks, 2009). Employee empowerment can be done through the provision of a positive work environment, and fair remuneration of workers. Further, the 21st-century leader provides strategies, listens to employees’ views, and offers coaching and mentorship programs.

There are differences between the 20th-century leader and the 21st-century leader. First, leadership in the 20th century used to focus on attaining a measurable goal. This goal was mainly delivering products and services with the purpose of making money and maximizing profit. Thus, a 20th-century leader was output-oriented and focused on the productivity of workers. On the other hand, leadership in the 21st century revolves around the infinite objective of meeting the needs of customers. In this respect, an organization recognizes that it is required to maximize profit, but it ensures that its profit-making business results in the ultimate delight of the consumers, not as the goal. Also, the 20th-century leader is one who measures workers’ performance by the output produced as opposed to the tasks completed. The opposite goes for the 21st-century leader, whose understanding of performance includes factors such as motivation, fair remuneration of workers, and improvement of their skills. A perfect example of a 20th-century leader is Kenneth Adams, who led Phillips Petroleum Company to financial success. His success was based on the ideals of 20th-century leadership that was task-oriented, in a hierarchal type of work structure, and focus to the shareholders. This is contrary to the approach taken by Paul Polman, who is the current C.E.O of Unilever. Polman exemplifies a 21st-century leader because of his focus on employees and consumers of the organization (George, 2010).


George, B. (2010, April 30). The new 21st century leaders. Harvad Business Review. Retrieved from:

Jean-Marie, G., Normore, A. H., & Brooks, J. S. (2009). Leadership for social justice: Preparing

21st century school leaders for a new social order. Journal of Research on Leadership

Education, 4(1), 1-31.

Wood, R. L. (2015). A Leader’s Guide to ThriveAbility: A Multi-Capital Operating System for a

Regenerative Inclusive Economy. New York: AuthorHouse.

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